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British possession of Hudson Bay was guaranteed by the same treaty.
During the escalation that preceded Father Rale's War (also known as Dummer's War), the Mi'kmaq raided the new fort at Canso (1720).
Canada, however, remained a British dominion, and Canadian forces joined their British counterparts in the Second Boer War and the First World War.
While independence followed the Statute of Westminster, Canada's links to Britain remained strong, and the British once again had the support of Canadians during the Second World War.
For the first time, a European empire formally acknowledged that its dominion over Nova Scotia would have to be negotiated with the region's indigenous inhabitants.
The treaty was invoked as recently as 1999 in the Donald Marshall case.
After European arrival, fighting between aboriginal groups tended to be bloodier and more decisive, especially as tribes became caught up in the economic and military rivalries of the European settlers.
For thousands of years, the area that would become Canada was the site of sporadic intertribal conflicts among Aboriginal peoples.
After the passing of the Quebec Act in 1774, giving the Canadians their first charter of rights under the new regime, the northern colonies chose not to join the American Revolution and remained loyal to the British crown. On both occasions, the Americans were rebuffed by Canadian forces; however, this threat would remain well into the 19th century and partially facilitated Canadian Confederation in 1867.
After Confederation, and amid much controversy, a full-fledged Canadian military was created.
As a result, France was forced to cede control of mainland Nova Scotia to Britain in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), leaving present-day New Brunswick as disputed territory and Île-St.
Jean (Prince Edward Island), and Île-Royale (present day Cape Breton Island) in the hands of the French.Beginning in the 17th and 18th centuries, Canada was the site of four colonial wars and two additional wars in Nova Scotia and Acadia between New France and New England; the conflicts spanned almost seventy years, as each allied with various First Nation groups.